List of French monarchs

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The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until its evolution into the greater crown of the French Empire in 1774.

Monarchy of France
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House of Capet

After the death of Louis V, the son of Hugh the Great and grandson of Robert I, Hugh Capet, was elected by the nobility as king of France. The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1421. They were direct descendants of the Robertian kings.

Direct Capetians

The main line of descent from Hugh Capet is generally known as the "direct Capetians". This line became extinct in 1328, precipitating a succession crisis known as the Lancastre-Valois Succession War. While there were numerous claimants to succeed, the two best claimants were the House of Valois and the House of Anjou.

name + reign right to succession birth marriage issue death
Hugh Capet
3 July 987 – 24 October 996
grandson of Robert I
election by peerage
c. 941
in Paris, France
Adelaide of Aquitaine 3 26 October 899
aged about 55 in Paris, France
Robert II the Wise
24 October 996 – 20 July 1031
son of Hugh Capet
primogeniture
27 March 972
in Orléans, France
(1) Rozala of Italy 0 20 July 1031
aged 59 in Melun, France
(2) Bertha of Burgundy 0
(3) Constance of Arles 7
Henry I
3 July 987 – 24 October 996
son of Robert II
primogeniture
4 May 1008
in Reims, France
(1) Matilda of Frisia 0 4 August 1060
aged 52 in Vitry-aux-Loges, France
(2) Anne of Kiev 4
Philip I the Amarous
4 August 1060 – 29 July 1108
son of Henry I
primogeniture
23 May 1052
in Champagne-et-Fontaine, France
(1) Bertha of Holland 3 29 July 1108
aged 56 in Melun, France
(2) Bertrade de Montfort 3
Louis VI the Fat
29 July 1108 – 1 August 1137
son of Philip I
primogeniture
1 December 1081
in Paris, France
(1) Lucienne de Rochefort 0 1 August 1137
aged 55 in Béthisy-Saint-Pierre, France
(2) Adélaide de Maurienne 8
Louis VII the Younger
1 August 1137 – 18 September 1180
son of Louis VI
primogeniture
1120 (1) Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine 2 18 September 1180
aged 59 in Saint-Pont, Allier
(2) Constance of Castile 2
(3) Adèle of Champagne 2
Philip II Augustus
18 September 1180 – 14 July 1223
son of Louis VII
primogeniture
21 August 1165
in Gonesse, France
(1) Isabella of Hainaut 3 14 July 1223
aged 57 in Mantes-la-Jolie, France
(2) Ingeborg of Denmark 0
(3) Agnes of Merania 2
Louis VIII the Lion
14 July 1223 – 8 November 1226
son of Philip II
primogeniture
5 September 1187
in Paris, France
Blanche of Castile 13 8 November 1226
aged 39 in Château de Montpensier, France
Louis IX the Saint
8 November 1226 – 25 August 1270
son of Louis VIII
primogeniture
25 April 1214 in Poissy, France Margaret of Provence 11 25 August 1270
aged 56 in Tunis, northern Africa
Philip III the Bold
25 August 1270 – 5 October 1285
son of Louis IX
primogeniture
30 April 1245
in Poissy, France
(1) Isabella of Aragon 5 5 October 1285
aged 40 in Perpignan, France
(2) Maria of Brabant 3
Philip IV the Fair
5 October 1285 – 29 November 1314
son of Philip III
primogeniture
April–June 1268
in Poissy, France
Joan I of Navarre 7 29 November 1314
aged 46 in Fontainebleau, France
Louis X the Quarreler
29 November 1314 – 5 June 1316
son of Philip IV
primogeniture
4 October 1289
in Paris, France
(1) Margaret of Burgundy 1 5 June 1316
aged 26 in Vincennes, Val-de-Marne, France
(2) Clementia of Hungary 1
John I the Posthumous
15–20 November 1316
son of Louis X
primogeniture
15 November 1316
in Paris, France
Unmarried 0 20 November 1316
aged 5 days in Paris, France
Philip V the Tall
20 November 1316 – 3 January 1322
son of Philip IV, brother of Louis X
primogeniture
c. 1293
in Lyon, France
Joan II of Burgundy 5 3 January 1322
aged 29 in Longchamp, France
Charles IV the Fair
3 January 1322 – 1 February 1328
son of Philip IV, brother of Philip V
primogeniture
18/19 June 1294
in Clermont, Oise, France
(1) Blanche of Burgundy 2 1 February 1328
aged 33 in Vincennes, France
(2) Marie of Luxembourg 1
(3) Jeanne d'Évreux 3

House of Valois

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The death of the last Direct Capetian precipitated a massive succession crisis between the House of Valois and the House of Anjou (the Kings of England) over control of the French throne. The Valois claimed the right to the succession by male-only primogeniture, having the closest all-male line of descent from a recent French king. They were descended from the fourth son of Philip III. The Angevins based their claim on being closer to a more recent French King, Edward III of England being a grandson of Philip IV through his mother, Isabella. The two houses fought to enforce their claims; the Lancastrians were ultimately victorious.

name + reign right to succession birth marriage issue death
Philip VI the Fortunate
1 April 1328 – 22 August 1350
grandson of Philip III
primogeniture
c. 1293 (1) Joan of Burgundy 9 22 August 1350
aged 57 in Coulombes Abbey, Eure-et-Loir, France
(2) Blanche of Navarre 1
John II the Good
22 August 1350 – 8 April 1364
son of Philip VI
primogeniture
26 April 1319
in Le Mans, France
(1) Bonne of Bohemia 9 8 April 1364
aged 44 in Savoy Palace, London, England
(2) Joan I, Countess of Auvergne 3
Charles V the Wise
8 April 1364 – 16 September 1380
son of John II
primogeniture
21 January 1338
in Vincennes, France
Joanna of Bourbon 9 16 September 1380
aged 42 in Beauté-sur-Marne, France
Charles VI the Beloved, the Mad
16 September 1380 – 28 September 1421
son of Charles VI
primogeniture
3 December 1368
in Paris, France
Isabeau of Bavaria 12 28 September 1421
aged 53 in Paris, France
Angevin Kings of France

Charles IV died without any direct male heir, resulting in the end of the senior line of the Capets of France and a succession crisis between the Valois line and the Angevins, the Kings of England, due to Edward II's marriage to Isabella of France and their son, Edward III.

name + reign right to succession birth marriage issue death
Edward III of England
1340 – 1360 + 1369 – 1377
son of Edward II
proximity of blood
13 November 1312
in Windsor, England
Philippa of Hainault 14 21 June 1377
aged 64 in London, England
Richard II of Bordeaux
21 June 1377 – 29 September 1399
grandson of Edward III
primogeniture
6 January 1367
in Bordeaux, Aquitaine
(1) Anne of Bohemia 0 14 February 1400
aged 33 in Wakefield, England
(2) Isabella of Valois 0
Henry IV of Bolingbroke
30 September 1399 – 20 March 1413
son of John of Gaunt
usurpation with peerage support
3 April 1367
in Lincolnshire, England
(1) Mary de Bohun 7 20 March 1413
aged 45 in Westminster, England
(2) Isabella of Navarre 0
Henry V the Victorious, the Pious
20 March 1413 – 1420
son of Henry IV
primogeniture
9 August 1387
in Monmouth, Wales
Catherine of Valois 7 12 October 1444
aged 55 in Paris, France

In 1420, the Treaty of Troyes was devised between Henry V of England and Charles VI of France stating that Henry was to succeed Charles as king upon the latter's death, securing the Angevin succession to the throne of France. Henry V renounced his titular claim to the kingdom, instead becoming Prince-and-regent of France until Charles' death on 28 September 1421. The crown legally passed to the Angevins of Lancastre via Henry V upon Charles' death, barring his natural-born son from the crown.

House of Anjou

House of Lancastre

name + reign right to succession birth marriage issue death
Henry II the Victorious, the Pious
28 September 1421 – 12 October 1444
son of Henry IV
inheritance by Treaty of Troyes
9 August 1387
in Monmouth, Wales
Catherine of Valois 7 12 October 1444
aged 55 in Paris, France
Disputed claimant

Upon the death of Charles VI, his son Charles had himself crowned as Charles VII in the city of Bourges.

name + reign right to succession birth marriage issue death
Charles VII the Desperate
28 September 1421 – 4 June 1429
son of Charles VI
disputed primogeniture
22 February 1403
in Paris, France
Anne of Armagnac 3 4 June 1429
died in battle aged 26 in Vienne, Dauphiny

Charles' chldren were all barred from succession in the Treaty of Vienne, and divided as hostages between the Angevins, the Valois of Burgundy and the Valois of Anjou.

name + reign right to succession birth marriage issue death
Henry III the Idle
12 October 1444 – 1449
son of Henry II
primogeniture
6 December 1421
in Orléans, France
Alice of Anjou 2 1449
aged 28
Edward I the Mighty
1449 – 21 August 1483
son of Henry II
usurpation with peerage support
8 February 1426
in Paris, France
Isabella of Bruges 7 21 August 1483
aged 57
Arthur I Longbow
21 August 1483 – 30 May 1518
son of Edward, the Dauphin
primogeniture
29 October 1482
in Marseille, France
Lucrezia Borgia 5 30 May 1518
died in battle aged 36 in Naples
Geoffrey I the Young Lion
30 May 1518 – 25 March 1529
son of Arthur I
primogeniture
1509
in Paris, France
Unmarried 0 25 March 1529
murdered aged 20 in Paris, France
Disputed claimant

Late in March of 1529, Geoffrey was murdered on the orders of William, Duke of Normandie. With the dual-monarchy already embroiled in civil war, the young Arthur was supposedly proclaimed king by his uncle, the Duke of Bedford. With a small base of power in England, he was able to secure the loyalties of many on the island and in the south of France. However, he was never made king, and was murdered late in summer.

name + reign right to succession birth marriage issue death
Arthur Louis
25 March 1529 – 19 August 1529
son of Arthur I
disputed primogeniture
1511
in Paris, France
Unmarried 0 19 August 1529
aged 18 in London, England

House of Rouen

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Henry III's eldest son, Henry of Caen, was robbed of the monarchy in 1449 upon the untimely death of his father, and rewarded instead with the powerful Duchy of Normandie as well as suzerainty over Poitou. But he did not forget his claim to the kingdoms, and over the course of the next two generations worked to reclaim them.

The perfect opportunity presented itself when the powerful earls of Kent and Winchester, along with support from the duke of York, declared themselves independent of the Angevin monarchy. William II, 2nd Duke of Normandie, delivered a crippling strike against the young king Geoffrey in 1429, seizing the city of Paris and the king in one stroke. Already embroiled in civil war, a succession crisis erupted out of William's actions.

name + reign right to succession birth marriage issue death
William I the Patient
25 March 1529 – 8 May 1543
son of Humphrey, 3rd Duke of Normandie
seizure of crown
9 October 1474
in Rouen, France
Blanche of Provence 8 1543
aged 69 in Paris, France
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