John of Mowbray
Tenure 1405–1471
Predecessor Thomas, 1st Duke of Norfolk
Successor John, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
Personal details
Born 1392
Died 19 October 1471
Spouse Katherine Neville
Issue John of Cotentin
Noble family House of Neville
Father Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland
Mother Joan Beaufort
Religion Roman Catholicism

John, 2nd Duke of Norfolk

Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Norfolk, 1st Earl of the Cotentin, KG (1392 – 19 October 1471) was an English nobleman and commander.

Humphrey was the exemplar of the romantic chivalric persona, and was known as Humphrey the Gallant due to his valour in arms during the Battle of . Mettled and courageous, he was a foil for the beautiful Margaret of Burgundy, his wife. His learned, widely read, scholarly approach to the early renaissance cultural expansion demonstrated the quintessential well-rounded princely character. He was an exemplar for Oxford, accomplished, diplomatic, with political cunning. Unlike his brothers, he was not naturally brave, but opinionated, fervent and judgmental. He exaggerated his own achievements, but idolised his brother Henry V.

He was the youngest in a powerful quadrumvirate of brothers, who were very close companions; on 20 March 1413, Henry and Humphrey had been at their dying father's bedside. Thomas, John and Humphrey had all been knighted in 1399. They joined the Order of the Garter together in 1400.

Humphrey of Gloucester
Tenure 25 February 1414 – 18 October 1452
Predecessor Thomas, 1st Duke of Gloucester
Successor Humphrey, 3rd Duke of Gloucester
 
Born 26 June 1381
Buckinghamshire, Kingdom of England
Died 18 October 1452
London, Kingdom of England
Spouse Margaret de Graye
Issue
View others
Humphrey, 3rd Duke of Gloucester
Margaret of Gloucester
William, Lord of Alcantarilla
Humphrey, 1st Earl of Surrey
Noble family House of Gloucester
Father Thomas of Woodstock
Mother Eleanor of Bohun
Religion Roman Catholicism

Early life


Humphrey was the only son born to Thomas of Woodstock, and as such grew up in close proximity to the royal family.

After the murder of his father, he became the ward of the crown, along with Henry of Monmouth, eldest son and heir of Henry Bolingbroke. Richard II took both boys with him to Ireland in 1398, where they were left in custody at Kells, when Richard returned to face Bolingbroke. Once Richard II has been deposed, Henry Bolingbroke ordered their release and summoned them home. He welcomed Humphrey back and granted him his inheritance, namely the Duchies of Gloucester and Aumale.

During the early rebellions against Henry IV, Humphrey remained a stalwart supporter of the Lancastrian crown, answering the call-to-arms issued against the Percy family on many occassions and defending the Welsh Marches from repeated inccursions. During the Powys Rebellion, Humphrey joined his friend Henry and Richard Grey in the latter's campaign in the Welsh Marches.

Humphrey of Gloucester
Cadet branch of the House of Anjou
Born: 3 October 1390 Died:
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Thomas, 1st Duke of Gloucester
Duke of Gloucester and Aumale
1399–1452
Succeeded by
Henry, 3rd Duke of Gloucester