Humphrey of Buckingham
Vassal to Kingdom of England
|Tenure||12 February 1414 –|
|Successor||Humphrey, 2nd Duke of Buckingham|
|Born||3 October 1390|
|Spouse||Margaret of Burgundy|
Roger, Count of Hainut
Humphrey, 2nd Duke of Buckingham
|Noble family||House of Lancaster|
|Mother||Mary of Bohun|
Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Buckingham, 1st Earl of Pembroke, KG (3 October 1390 – ) was an English nobleman and commander.
Humphrey was the exemplar of the romantic chivalric persona, and was known as Humphrey the Gallant due to his valour in arms during the Battle of . Mettled and courageous, he was a foil for the beautiful Margaret of Burgundy, his wife. His learned, widely read, scholarly approach to the early renaissance cultural expansion demonstrated the quintessential well-rounded princely character. He was an exemplar for Oxford, accomplished, diplomatic, with political cunning. Unlike his brothers, he was not naturally brave, but opinionated, fervent and judgmental. He exaggerated his own achievements, but idolised his brother Henry V.
He was the youngest in a powerful quadrumvirate of brothers, who were very close companions; on 20 March 1413, Henry and Humphrey had been at their dying father's bedside. Thomas, John and Humphrey had all been knighted in 1399. They joined the Order of the Garter together in 1400.
Humphrey was the only son born to Thomas of Woodstock, and as such grew up in close proximity to the royal family.
After the murder of his father, he became the ward of the crown, along with Henry of Monmouth, eldest son and heir of Henry Bolingbroke. Richard II took both boys with him to Ireland in 1398, where they were left in custody at Kells, when Richard returned to face Bolingbroke. Once Richard II has been deposed, Henry Bolingbroke ordered their release and summoned them home. He welcomed Humphrey back and granted him his inheritance, namely the Duchies of Gloucester and Aumale.
During the early rebellions against Henry IV, Humphrey remained a stalwart supporter of the Lancastrian crown, answering the call-to-arms issued against the Percy family on many occassions and defending the Welsh Marches from repeated inccursions. During the Powys Rebellion, Humphrey joined his friend Henry and Richard Grey in the latter's campaign in the Welsh Marches.